He returned to St. Louis, was placed on injured reserve and will be reevaluated in four weeks, the team said. The Blues have one game remaining on a four-game road trip.
Steen has zero goals and five assists in 17 games this season for the 11-3-3 Blues.
The Blues are already without top-line winger Vladimir Tarasenko for the rest of the regular season following right shoulder surgery. Earlier this week, they traded 2014 first-round pick Robby Fabbri to the Detroit Red Wings for Jacob de la Rose.
St. Louis has won six in a row and is tied with the Washington Capitals for the most points in the NHL.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.